Cannabinoids & Terpenes

Cannabinoids

A cannabinoid is a naturally-occurring compound found in a cannabis plant. Cannabinoids can provide a variety of effects, from anticonvulsant properties to pain relief. The potential uses for these chemical compounds is vast, and research is continuing to uncover of delivery options and therapeutic effects.

Psychoactive

  • Affects how the brain works and may cause changes in mood, awareness, thoughts, feelings, or behavior.
  • The most well-known cannabinoid in cannabis is Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). It is the main psychoactive compound in cannabis and causes the sensation of feeling high.
  • When THC is exposed to prolonged heat, air, or light, it produces cannabinol (CBN). CBN is usually found in concentrations of less than 1% and its potential benefits are still being studied.
  • Cannabinoid THC-V has the potential to be quite psychoactive and is being studied for treatment in mental health issues and PTSD. THC-V has also been shown to reduce hunger. Although it has not yet been proven to be a successful treatment for all forms of psychosis, there is some evidence that it may have anxiolytic (antianxiety) characteristics.

Non Psychoactive

  • Does not affect the mind or mental processes; produces no changes in perception or behavior.
  • THCA (Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid) is the most common cannabinoid in raw cannabis. THC-A is not psychoactive, but it is the most potent. THC-A becomes THC as soon as it is heated to a sufficient level. As fresh cannabis dries and matures, it undergoes this process.
  • Cannabigerol (CBG) is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid present in less than 1% of the cannabis plant. It is commonly used in medical cannabis for pain management.
  • Cannabidivarin (CBD-V) is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid with antiseizure properties. It is currently being studied for its potential to treat epilepsy.
  • Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the most popular cannabinoids with medicinal potential and is often used as a non-addictive alternative to pharmaceuticals. Additionally, CBD possesses anti-spasmodic and anti-seizure capabilities, as well as strong anti-inflammatory characteristics.

Terpenes

Terpenes are another naturally-occurring compound found in all plant matter. They are integral to how we experience cannabis because they are responsible for the aromas, flavors, and even the colors of the plant. From anti-inflammatory to sedative properties, scientists have only begun to scratch the surface of the medicinal benefits of these aromatic compounds. To date, researchers have identified over 100 different cannabis terpenes, but only a handful of them are found in high concentration in cannabis.

Myrcene is sometimes used to treat insomnia and pain. It’s unique because it allows chemicals to cross the blood-brain barrier more easily, allowing for cannabinoids to have a faster onset. Myrcene may also increase the psychoactive effect of THC, causing a more intense cerebral high. Myrcene is naturally occurring in lemongrass, thyme, and hops.

Limonene has an energizing, citrus scent and is often used for combatting gastric reflux and heartburn. In addition, it can be a powerful mood elevator and stress reducer. Limonene also has antifungal, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties and is often found in common cleaning and cosmetic products.

Humulene comes from humulus lupulus, also known as common hops. It was used in ancient Chinese medicine and can be an effective appetite suppressant. It also has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties. Humulene is found in ginseng, sage, clove, and basil.

Ocimene is a terpene that has shown significant anti-inflammatory effects. It has an herbaceous scent, often with citrus or woody undertones. Many believe this terpene was developed as part of a plant’s defense mechanism, since pests seem to be averse to strains high in ocimene. While many other plants have some quantity present, ocimene can be found in hops, basil, bergamot, orchids, and pepper.

Terpinolene is present in many cannabis strains, but usually only in small quantities. This terpene has a multi-dimensional aroma that smells like pine trees, citrus, herbs, and florals. It has antioxidant and sedative properties, and is naturally occurring in nutmeg, tea tree, apples, and conifers.

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